nanoBench is a Linux-based tool for running small microbenchmarks on recent Intel and AMD x86 CPUs. The microbenchmarks are evaluated using hardware performance counters. The reading of the performance counters is implemented in a way that incurs only minimal overhead.
There are two variants of the tool: A user-space implementation and a kernel module. The kernel module makes it possible to benchmark privileged instructions, to use uncore performance counters, and it can allow for more accurate measurement results as it disables interrupts and preemptions during measurements. The disadvantage of the kernel module compared to the user-space variant is that it is quite risky to allow arbitrary code to be executed in kernel space. Therefore, the kernel module should not be used on a production system.
nanoBench is used for running the microbenchmarks for obtaining the latency, throughput, and port usage data that is available on uops.info.
sudo apt install msr-tools git clone https://github.com/andreas-abel/nanoBench.git cd nanoBench make user
nanoBench might not work if Secure Boot is enabled. Click here for instructions on how to disable Secure Boot.
Note: The following is not necessary if you would just like to use the user-space version.
git clone https://github.com/andreas-abel/nanoBench.git cd nanoBench make kernel
To load the kernel module, run:
sudo insmod kernel/nb.ko # this is necessary after every reboot
The recommended way for using nanoBench is with the wrapper scripts
nanoBench.sh (for the user-space variant) and
kernel-nanoBench.sh (for the kernel module). The following examples work with both of these scripts. For the kernel module, we also provide a Python wrapper:
For obtaining repeatable results, it can help to disable hyper-threading. This can be done with the
Example 1: The ADD Instruction
The following command will benchmark the assembler code sequence "ADD RAX, RBX; ADD RBX, RAX" on a Skylake-based system.
sudo ./nanoBench.sh -asm "ADD RAX, RBX; add RBX, RAX" -config configs/cfg_Skylake_common.txt
It will produce an output similar to the following.
Instructions retired: 2.00 Core cycles: 2.00 Reference cycles: 1.85 UOPS_ISSUED.ANY: 2.00 UOPS_EXECUTED.THREAD: 2.00 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_0: 0.49 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_1: 0.50 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_2: 0.00 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_3: 0.00 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_4: 0.00 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_5: 0.50 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_6: 0.51 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_7: 0.00 ...
The tool will unroll the assembler code multiple times, i.e., it will create multiple copies of it. The results are averages per copy of the assembler code for multiple runs of the entire generated code sequence.
The config file contains the required information for configuring the programmable performance counters with the desired events. We provide example configuration files for recent Intel and AMD microarchitectures in the
The assembler code sequence may use and modify any general-purpose or vector registers (unless the
-no_mem options are used), including the stack pointer. There is no need to restore the registers to their original values at the end.
R14, RDI, RSI, RSP, and RBP are initialized with addresses in the middle of dedicated memory areas (of 1 MB each), that can be freely modified by the assembler code. When using the kernel module, the size of the memory area that R14 points to can be increased using the
set-R14-size.sh script; more details on this can be found here.
All other registers have initially undefined values. They can, however, be initialized as shown in the following example.
Example 2: Load Latency
sudo ./nanoBench.sh -asm_init "mov RAX, R14; sub RAX, 8; mov [RAX], RAX" -asm "mov RAX, [RAX]" -config configs/cfg_Skylake_common.txt
asm-init code is executed once in the beginning. It first sets RAX to R14-8 (thus, RAX now contains a valid memory address), and then sets the memory at address RAX to its own address. Then, the
asm code is executed repeatedly. This code loads the value at the address in RAX into RAX. Thus, the execution time of this instruction corresponds to the L1 data cache latency.
We will get an output similar to the following.
Instructions retired: 1.00 Core cycles: 4.00 Reference cycles: 3.52 UOPS_ISSUED.ANY: 1.00 UOPS_EXECUTED.THREAD: 1.00 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_0: 0.00 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_1: 0.00 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_2: 0.50 UOPS_DISPATCHED_PORT.PORT_3: 0.50 ... MEM_LOAD_RETIRED.L1_HIT: 1.00 MEM_LOAD_RETIRED.L1_MISS: 0.00 ...
We will now take a look behind the scenes at the code that nanoBench generates for evaluating a microbenchmark.
int run(code, code_init, local_unroll_count): int measurements[n_measurements] for i=-warm_up_count to n_measurements save_regs code_init m1 = read_perf_ctrs // stores results in memory, does not modify registers for j=0 to loop_count // this line is omitted if loop_count=0 code // (copy #1) code // (copy #2) ⋮ code // (copy #local_unroll_count) m2 = read_perf_ctrs restore_regs if i >= 0: // ignore warm-up runs measurements[i] = m2 - m1 return agg(measurements) // apply selected aggregate function
run(...) is executed twice: The first time with
local_unroll_count = unroll_count, and the second time with
local_unroll_count = 2 * unroll_count. If the
-basic_mode options is used, the first execution is with no instructions between
m1 = read_perf_ctrs and
m2 = read_perf_ctrs, and the second with
local_unroll_count = unroll_count.
The result that is finally reported by nanoBench is the difference between these two executions divided by
max(loop_count * unroll_count, unroll_count).
Before the first execution of
run(...), the performance counters are configured according to the event specifications in the
-config file. If this file contains more events than there are programmable performance counters available,
run(...) is executed multiple times with different performance counter configurations.
kernel-nanoBench.sh support the following command-line parameters. All parameters are optional. Parameter names may be abbreviated if the abbreviation is unique (e.g.,
-l may be used instead of
||Assembler code sequence (in Intel syntax) containing the code to be benchmarked.|
||Assembler code sequence (in Intel syntax) that is executed once in the beginning of every benchmark run.|
||Assembler code sequence (in Intel syntax) that is executed once before the first benchmark run.|
||A binary file containing the code to be benchmarked as raw x86 machine code. This option cannot be used together with
||A binary file containing code to be executed once in the beginning of every benchmark run. This option cannot be used together with
||A binary file containing code to be executed once before the first benchmark run. This option cannot be used together with
||File with performance counter event specifications. Details are described below.|
||Number of times the measurements are repeated.
||Number of copies of the benchmark code inside the inner loop.
||Number of iterations of the inner loop. If n>0, the code to be benchmarked must not modify R15, as this register contains the loop counter. If n=0, the instructions for the loop are omitted; the loop body is then executed once.
||Number of runs of the generated benchmark code sequence (in each invocation of
||Number of runs of the benchmark code sequence before the first invocation of
||Selects the arithmetic mean (excluding the top and bottom 20% of the values) as the aggregate function.
||Selects the median as the aggregate function.|
||Selects the minimum as the aggregate function.|
||The effect of this option is described in the Generated Code section.|
||If this option is enabled, the code for
||Pins the measurement thread to CPU n.
||Outputs the results of all performance counter readings. In the user-space version, the results are printed to stdout. The output of the kernel module can be accessed using
The following parameters are only supported by
||If n=1, performance events are counted when the processor is operating at a privilege level greater than 0.
||If n=1, performance events are counted when the processor is operating at privilege level 0.
||Enables the debug mode (see below).|
The following parameter is only supported by
||File with performance counter event specifications for counters that can only be read with the
Performance Counter Config Files
We provide provide performance counter configuration files (for counters that can be read with the
RDPMC instruction) for most recent Intel and AMD CPUs in the
configs folder. These files can be adapted/reduced to the events you are interested in.
The format of the entries in the configuration files is
You can find details on the meanings of the different parts of the entries in chapters 18 and 19 of Intel's System Programming Guide.
MSR Performance Counter Config Files
Some performance counters, such as the uncore counters on Intel CPUs, cannot be read with the
RDPMC instruction, but only with the
RDMSR instruction. The entries in the corresponding configuration files have the following format:
msr_...=...(.msr_...=...)* msr_... Name
For example, the line
msr_0xE01=0x20000000.msr_700=0x408F34 msr_706 LLC_LOOKUP_CBO_0
can be used to count the number of last-level cache lookups in C-Box 0 on a Skylake system. Details on this can be found in Intel's uncore performance monitoring reference manuals, e.g., here.
Pausing Performance Counting
-no_mem option is used, nanoBench provides a feature to temporarily pause performance counting. This is enabled by including the magic byte sequences
0xF0b513b1C2813F04 (for stopping the counters), and
0xE0b513b1C2813F04 (for restarting them) in the code of the microbenchmark.
Using this feature incurs a certain timing overhead that will be included in the measurement results. It is therefore, in particular, useful for microbenchmarks that do not measure the time, but e.g., cache hits or misses, such as the microbenchmarks generated by the tools in tools/CacheAnalyzer.
If the debug mode is enabled, the generated code contains a breakpoint right before the line
m2 = read_perf_ctrs, and nanoBench is run using gdb. This makes it possible to analyze the effect of the code to be benchmarked on registers and on the memory. The command
info all-registers can, for example, be used to display the current values of all registers.
nanoBench should work with all Intel processors supporting architectural performance monitoring version ≥ 2, as well as with AMD Family 17h processors.
The code was developed and tested using Ubuntu 18.04.